Valley Fever Information

Valley Fever Awareness

Valley Fever is a fungal lung infection that can be devastating.  Learning about Valley Fever can help you and your doctor recognize the symptoms early.

Valley Fever is an infection caused by a fungus that lives in the soil.  About 10,000 U.S. cases are reported each year, mostly from Arizona and California.  Valley Fever can be misdiagnosed because its symptoms are similar to those of other illnesses.  Here are some important things to know about Valley Fever, also called Coccidioidomycosis.

From Soil to Lungs

The fungus that causes Valley Fever, Coccidioides, is found in the southwestern United States, parts of Mexico and Central America, and parts of South America.  The fungus has also been found in south-central Washington State.  People can get Valley Fever by breathing in the microscopic fungal spores from the air in these areas.  Valley Fever does not spread from person to person.

Common Symptoms May Lead to Delayed Diagnosis

Many people who are exposed to the fungus never have symptoms.  Other people may have flu-like symptoms, including:

•Fatigue (tiredness)

•Cough

•Fever

•Shortness of breath

•Headache

•Night sweats

•Muscle aches or joint pain

•Rash on upper body or legs

The symptoms of Valley Fever can be similar to those of other common illnesses, so patients may have delays in getting diagnosed and treated.  For many people, symptoms will go away without any treatment, after weeks or months.  Healthcare providers prescribe antifungal medication for some people to try to reduce symptoms or prevent the infection from getting worse.  People who have severe lung infections or infections that have spread to other parts of the body always need antifungal treatment and may need to stay in the hospital.

People at Risk

Valley Fever is a serious, costly illness

• Nearly 75% of people with Valley Fever miss work or school

• As many as 40% of people who get Valley Fever need to stay in the hospital

•The average cost of a hospital stay for a person with Valley Fever is almost $50,000

Anyone who lives in or travels to an area where the fungus lives in the environment can get Valley Fever.  Valley Fever can affect people of any age, but it’s most common in adults ages 60 and older.  Certain groups of people may be at higher risk for developing the severe forms of Valley Fever, such as:

•People who have weakened immune systems, for example, people who:

◦Have HIV/AIDS

◦Have had an organ transplant

◦Are taking medications such as corticosteroids or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors

•Pregnant women

•People who have diabetes

Awareness is Key

In areas where Valley Fever is common, it’s difficult to completely avoid exposure to the fungus because it is in the environment.  There is no vaccine to prevent infection.   Knowing about Valley Fever is one of the most important ways to avoid delays in diagnosis and treatment.  People who have Valley Fever symptoms and live in or have visited an area where the fungus is common should ask their doctor to test them for Valley Fever.  Healthcare providers should be aware that Valley Fever symptoms are similar to those of other respiratory illnesses and should consider testing for Valley Fever in patients with flu-like symptoms who live in or have traveled to an area where Coccidioides lives.